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Avian influenza in Europe: updates

Avian influenza in Italy: updates

Posted: 16 September 2015 Last update: 12 July 2018

Here you can find maps and updates of the outbreaks of avian influenza in Italy.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Italy

2016/2018 - H5N5, H5N82016 - H7N72014/2015 - H5N8, H5N12013 - H7N7

2016/2018 – H5N5, H5N8

  • Outbreaks | PDF (last update: 23/03/2018)
  • Maps | PDF (last update: 13/03/20187)

Resume

Starting from 28 December 2016, Italy was involved in the H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic that spread across Europe in 2016/17.

During this period, passive surveillance activities on wild bird population, provided for by the national program, allowed detecting 14 outbreaks of HPAI virus. Among the 16 birds directly involved, 15 resulted positive for subtype H5N8 (8 mute swans, 1 rock pigeon, 1 greylag goose, 1 mallard, 1 Eurasian wigeon, 1 common kestrel, 1 common shelduck and a grey heron) and two tested positive for subtype H5N5 (gadwall and Eurasian wigeon). For what concerns the poultry sector, eighty-three outbreaks were confirmed, affecting both rural and industrial sectors, and occurred in two distinct epidemic waves. All notified cases were related to HPAI viruses subtype H5N8.

During the first wave, 16 holdings located in the North-east tested positive for HPAI, and 357,549 birds were culled because directly involved in the outbreaks. The large majority of affected farms were close to wetlands where substantial populations of wild waterfowl were reported. Contact tracking activities did not identify links between cases, and sequenced viruses revealed considerable nucleotide differences. Point source introductions from wild reservoirs are therefore considered as the most likely origin of infection.

During the second epidemic wave, sixty-seven farms in the densely populated poultry areas (DPPA) were affected, with sparse incursions into western and central Italy. 2,416,107 birds were culled because directly involved in the outbreaks. Up to late September, epidemiological and genetic characteristics were comparable to the outbreaks reported in the first wave. Since October, a larger number of secondary cases was observed, most of all in Brescia and Cremona provinces. At-risk contacts were detected among related outbreaks, and phylogenetic analyses revealed 99-100% similarity between viruses isolated in those premises. Sharing of personnel and vehicles and neighborhood spread between the outbreaks have been identified as the more likely sources of infection.

The last HPAI outbreak of the year 2017 was confirmed in a fattening turkey farm in Ravenna province on 11 December. The farm is located in a scarcely populated poultry area, which is characterised by the presence of large wetlands. Considering the notified presence of waterfowls near the infected farm and that no epidemiological links with previous outbreaks have been detected, contact with the wild reservoir has been identified as the more likely source of introduction.

In March 2018, three new HPAI H5N8 outbreaks had been identified in Lombardy region. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high similarity with the viruses isolated in Brescia province last autumn.

Updates

March 2018

14/03/2018 – On 14 March, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease characterised as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8 the virus isolated in the last Bergamo outbreak.

13/03/2018 – On 12 March, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease characterised as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8 the virus isolated in the last outbreak.
On the following day, NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a fattening turkey farm in Bergamo province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm hosted about 155.000 end-of-cycle male birds. The farm is located inside the first Bergamo outbreak protection zone and, as such, had been consistently subjected to the mandatory clinical and virological controls, testing negative for AI. Further samples were collected on 12 March, after a mortality increase was observed on the previous day.
Culling procedures are ongoing. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

09/03/2018 – On 9 March, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed about 30,700 birds, reared in cages. The farm belongs to the same production company of the laying hen farm confirmed as positive for HPAI by NRL on 5 March. The positivity was detected after virological controls on the production company farms were carried out on 8 March. No evident clinical symptoms were observed in the farm. Culling procedures are ongoing. Further information will be provided as soon as available..

05/03/2018 – On 5 March, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a laying hen farm in Bergamo province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed about 95,000 birds. On 2 March, a marked mortality increase and a drop in egg production were reported to the Veterinary Services. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

December 2017

11/12/2017 – On 11 December, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a fattening turkey farm in Ravenna province (Emilia-Romagna region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed about 17,000 60-day old female turkeys. On 10 December, a marked mortality increase was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services. The farm is located in a large wetland characterised by a low density of poultry farms. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

05/12/2017 – On 5 December, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease characterised as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8 the virus isolated in the last outbreak. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

04/12/2017 – On the 1 December, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a mixed -species farm in Treviso province (Veneto region). At the time of confirmation, the farm hosted 1,280 broilers, 6,006 fattening ducks and 135 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Samples were collected after a mortality increase was observed started on 28 November. The same epidemiological unit includes another mixed species farm, hosting 3,860 birds. Control and eradication measures were applied to the whole epidemiological unit. Culling procedures were concluded on 2 December. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

November 2017

24/11/2017 – On 23 November, the last outbreak culling procedures were concluded. On the same day, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a backyard flock in Treviso province (Veneto region). The mixed species flock consisted of about 70 birds. A mortality increase was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services. Culling procedures have already been concluded. Further information will be provided as soon as available

23/11/2017 – On 22 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a broiler farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The positivity was detected after the mandatory pre-movement virological tests. Another broiler farm is located in close proximity to the outbreak; the two farms are being treated as a unique epidemiological unit, hosting a total of about 60,000 50-day old chickens, at the time of confirmation. Control and eradication measures were applied to the whole epidemiological unit.
On 23 November, the virus was characterised by the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

16/11/2017 – On 10 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed 54,664 birds. The farm is located at approximately 500 m from the duck farm confirmed as positive for HPAI on 3 November (67th outbreak). Samples were taken after observing an increase in mortality on 9 November. The outbreak was extincted on 14 November.
On 10 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a broiler farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, 13,335 birds were present in the farm. On 10 November, an increase in mortality was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services. The outbreak was extincted on 14 November.
On 10 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 another laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm is located within 600 metres from 75th outbreak, confirmed as positive earlier on the same day. The farm hosted 17,199 birds at the time of confirmation. On 10 November, an increase in mortality in one shed out of two was observed, together with a slight decrease in feed intake and a marked drop in egg production. On 15 November, the outbreak was extincted.
On 14 November, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease characterised as Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 the viruses isolated in the last three outbreaks.
On 15 November, NRL characterised as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8 the viruses isolated in the last seven outbreaks confirmed in Lombardy region.

13/11/2017 – On 7 November, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a rural farm in Rome province (Lazio region). About one hundred laying hens were housed in the farm at the time of confirmation. Samples were taken after a marked mortality increase was observed on 2 November. At the time of confirmation, all the birds were dead. The virus was subsequently characterised by the NRL as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.
On 8 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Cremona province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed 13,642 male turkeys. About 930 bovines were also reared in the farm. Epidemiological investigations revealed that the canals encircling the farm were frequented by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). On 30 October, mortality increase and respiratory symptoms were observed. Birds were subsequently tested for HPAI and resulted negative. The positivity was confirmed after virological controls were carried out on 6 November.
On 9 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed about 76,010 laying hens. Samples were taken after a mortality increase was observed on 9 November.
On 10 November, the cases confirmed between 2 and 6 November in Brescia province have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.
On the same day, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 another laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). About 24,550 laying hens were housed in the farm at the time of confirmation. The positivity was detected after the mandatory pre-movement virological tests. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

09/11/2017 – On 6 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, about 19,360 female turkeys were housed in the farm. Samples were taken after an increase in mortality was observed on 2 November.
On 6 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a laying hen farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm housed 37,700 birds. In one shed out of three, birds were reared free range. On 3 November, an increase in mortality was observed in the free range shed and reported to the Veterinary Services.
On 8 November, the viruses isolated in the outbreaks 65-70 were characterized by the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8.
On the same day, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a laying hen breeder farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). About 29,800 birds, reared free range, were present in the farm. Samples were taken after an increase in mortality was observed on 7 November. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

07/11/2017 –  On 2 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm had about 12,020 turkeys, at the time of confirmation. Samples were collected after an increase in mortality was observed on 1 November.
On 3 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 another fattening turkey farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). About 7,420 birds were present in the farm at the time of confirmation. On 2 November, an increase in mortality was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services.
On 3 November, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A viruses subtype H5 two fattening duck farms in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farms are located in the restriction zone of the case confirmed on the same day. Birds test positivity to HPAI was confirmed after the mandatory virological controls in the restriction zone.
On the same day, the viruses isolated in the outbreaks 62-64 were characterized by the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.
On 6 November, the NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a laying hen farm in Asti province (Piedmont region). In proximity to the outbreak, there is another laying hen farm, of the same owner. The two farms are being treated as a unique epidemiological unit. The unit had about 49,000 birds, at the time of confirmation. In two sheds out of five, birds were reared free range. A mortality increase was observed starting on 2 November. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

02/11/2017 – On 31 October, the Veterinary authorities confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, 10.221 male turkeys were present in the farm. On 27 October, a slight increase in mortality was observed. Samples were collected after a marked increase in mortality was detected on 31 October and reported to the Veterinary Services.
On the same day, the Veterinary authorities confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm had 19,989 female turkeys, at the time of confirmation. On 31 October, a marked mortality increase was observed, together with nervous, enteric and respiratory symptoms. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

October 2017

31/10/2017 –  On 30 October, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkeys farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm had about 13.800 male turkeys, for a total of five sheds. On 30 October morning, increased mortality was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

30/10/2017 – On 24 October, samples taken from a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and a quail found dead in Bergamo province (Lombardy) were analysed at Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna and resulted positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5. The owner of the birds also had a backyard flock with one goose and five ducks. The culling procedures were concluded on 24 October. On 26 October, the virus was characterised by the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8. Epidemiological investigations and contact tracking to identify the farm from where the quail originated are ongoing.
On 24 October, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a rural farm in Milan province (Lombardy region). The farm hosted 152 laying hens. An increase in mortality was observed in the flock on 23 October. All the birds were dead at the time of confirmation. On 26 October, the virus was characterised by the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.
On the same day NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a duck farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm consisted of three sheds, with approximately 1.500 female ducks and 14.500 male ducks. The positivity was detected after the mandatory pre-movement virological tests on tracheal swabs. No evident clinical symptoms were observed in the farm.
On 27 October, samples taken from a Greylag goose (Anser anser) and a Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) found dead in Ferrara province (Emilia-Romagna region), were analysed at IZSLER and resulted positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5. Further analyses are in progress.
On 28 October, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 two broiler farms in Brescia province (Lombardy region). In both cases, samples were taken after an increase in mortality was observed on 27 October. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

23/10/2017 – On 13 October, samples from two mute swans (Cygnus olor) found in Verbano-Cusio-Ossola province (Piedmont region), were analysed at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease and resulted positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5. On 17 October, NRL characterised the virus as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.
On 19 October, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkeys farm in Brescia province (Lombardy region). In close proximity to the outbreak, there is another fattening turkeys farm. Due to proximity and lack of a clear separation, the two farms are being treated as a unique epidemiological unit. The unit hosted 29.640 female turkeys, at the time of confirmation. On 16 October evening, depressed sensorium was detected and, the next day, increased mortality was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services. Epidemiological investigations revealed that the affected unit had risk contacts with the fattening turkeys farm in Brescia Province confirmed as positive for HPAI H5N8 on 9 October.
On 19 October, NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 another fattening turkeys farm located in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm hosted 8.945 male turkeys, at the time of confirmation. On 17 October evening, depressed sensorium was detected and, the next day, increased mortality was observed and reported to the Veterinary Services.
On 20 October, the virus isolated in the last two outbreaks were characterised by the NRL as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.

19/10/2017 – On 17 October, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a backyard flock in Padua province (Veneto region). In the premises were present five laying hens. Furthermore, six swans were resident in the property pods, which were frequented by wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). An increase in mortality was observed on 13 October, when two swans were found dead. Culling procedures of Gallinaceous birds were concluded on 18 October.
On the same day, NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 another backyard flock in Padua province (Veneto region). The flock consisted of eight geese and 34 ducks. Wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) used to frequent the pods located in the premise, and, in this way, came into contact with the flock. On 13 October, an increase in mortality was observed in the flock. Culling procedures have already been completed.
Lastly, NRL characterised as Highly Pathogenic the viruses isolated in the last outbreaks in Lombardy region.

17/10/2017 – On 13 October, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna identified as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkeys farm located in Brescia province (Lombardy region). The farm hosted 16.178 male birds. Following the confirmation of H5N8 in another fattening turkey farm belonging the same owner, samples were collected on 10 October, testing negative for Avian Influenza. Further samples were collected on 13 October, after increased mortality was reported to the local Veterinary Services.
On 14 October, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a backyard flock in Sondrio province (Lombardy region). Approximately 10 broilers were present in the flock. All the birds were dead at the time of confirmation. Epidemiological investigations revealed an epidemiological connection with the grower farm in Bergamo Province confirmed as HPAI H5N8 case on 11 October.
On 16 October, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease characterised as subtype H5N8 the viruses isolated in the last two outbreaks.

13/10/2017 – On 11 October, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a fattening turkeys farm located in Padua province (Veneto region). Approximately 9.000 female turkeys were present in the farm, at the time of confirmation. Increase in mortality and nervous symptoms were reported on the morning of 11 September. In close proximity to the outbreak, there is another fattening turkeys farm, which hosted about 3.600 birds, at the time of confirmation. Due to proximity and lack of a clear separation, the two farms are being treated as a unique epidemiological unit. Control and eradication measures were applied to the whole epidemiological unit. The next day, the virus had been characterised by the NRL as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8.
On 11 October, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a grower farm in Bergamo province (Lombardy region). The mixed species farm consisted of 365 birds.
The next day, NRL characterised as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N8 the viruses isolated in the last outbreaks.
On 13 October, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 an agritourism in Bergamo province (Lombardy region). Approximately 20 birds were present in the premise. Epidemiological investigations revealed an epidemiological connection with the grower farm in Bergamo Province confirmed as HPAI H5N8 case on 11 October.
On the same day, IZSLER confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Mantova province (Lombardy region). The farm had about 6.500 male turkeys. Further information will be provided as soon as available.

11/10/2017 – On 10 October, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a backyard flock in Vicenza province (Veneto region). The mixed species flock consisted of about 70 birds. An increase in mortality was observed and samples were taken on 9 October.
On the same day, the NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 two farms in Lombardy region. The first case is in a fattening turkey farm in Brescia province. Samples were taken after an increase in mortality was reported to the Veterinary Services by the farm veterinarian. In the farm, there were about 14.000 male turkeys at the end of their productive cycle. The second case is in a backyard flock in Bergamo province. The flock consisted of about eight laying hens. On 1 October, an increase in mortality was observed and, a few days after, the Veterinary Services were reported. At the moment of confirmation, all the birds were died.
Lastly, the cases confirmed on 6 October in the province of Vicenza and Ferrara have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

06/10/2017 – On 6 October, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a broiler farm in Vicenza province (Veneto region). There were around 13.040 43 days-old birds present at the farm. This farm is located 1.220 meters away from the case confirmed on 26 September in a duck farm in Vicenza province.
On the same day, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a laying hen farm in Ferrara province (Emilia-Romagna region). Around one million hens, reared in percheries, were present at the farm. The farm is located in a large wetland characterised by a low density of poultry farms. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

02/10/2017 – On 28 September, samples from a juvenile swan (Cygnus spp) found in Como province (Lombardy region), were analysed at a local laboratory (Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna) and resulted positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5. The residential bird was found dead in lake Como. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

September 2017

29/09/2017 –  On 28 September, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a backyard flock in Cremona province (Lombardy region). The flock hosted approximately 90 birds, mostly chickens, with some (less than 10) ducks, a swan and a turkey.
A marked increase in the mortality rate was observed after the introduction of a wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in the chicken coop. The wild duck was found by the farmer inside the area of the holding, unable to fly and showing neurological symptoms. After just one day of the introduction, there was a sudden increase in mortality. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures have already been completed.
On the same day, the viruses isolated in the three cases confirmed on the 26th of September have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

27/09/2017 – On 26 September, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a fattening turkey farm in Vicenza province (Veneto region). At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, there were 30,076 53 day-old male turkeys present at the farm. On 20 September, respiratory symptoms were detected and, in the following days, neurologic symptoms and increased mortality rates were observed.
On the same day, the NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a duck farm in Vicenza province (Veneto region). Around 8.200 female ducks were present at the farm. On 24 September, an increase in mortality was observed, along with neurological symptoms. The epidemiological unit also includes an adjacent grower farm rearing various species (for a total of 3,950 birds). Control and eradication measures were applied to the whole epidemiological unit.
Still on 26 September, the NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, 8,378 female turkey with 100 days-old were present at the farm. A marked increase in mortality was observed on 25 September.
Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around all the infected holdings were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC.

13/09/2017 – On 12 September, the virus detected in the agro-tourism farm in Padua province (confirmed as positive on 11 September) has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8.

12/09/2017 – On 11 September, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza (NRL) confirmed a new positivity for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in an agro-tourism in the province of Padua (Veneto). There were around 1.500 free-range ducks and geese present at the farm. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

05/09/2017 – Today, the virus detected in the fattening turkey farm in Cremona province (confirmed on 4 September) has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

04/09/2017 – On 2 September, the National Reference Center for Avian Influenza (NRL) confirmed a new positivity for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in a fattening turkey farm in the province of Cremona (Lombardy). At the moment of the epidemiological inquiry, there were around 23,200 turkeys (107 days-old). In the days before the confirmation, mild nervous and respiratory symptomatology and a slight increase in mortality was observed in one of the sheds. No symptomatology was reported in the other sheds. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures are ongoing.

August 2017

31/08/2017 – On 23 August, the virus detected in the fattening turkey farm in Verona province (confirmed as positive on the same date) have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

29/08/2017 – On 25 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a rural farm with 25 chickens in Pavia province (Lombardy region). The birds have already been culled. On the same day, another positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 was confirmed in a mute swan (Cygnus olor) found dead near a pond in Bergamo province (Lombardy region).
On 28 August, the NRL confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). At the moment of the epidemiological inquiry, there were 10.700 turkeys (males, 52 day-old). On 27 August, some turkeys exhibited nervous symptoms and, in the following day, a small increase in mortality and a decrease in the water consumption were observed. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures are ongoing for this last case.

25/08/2017 – On 24 August, also the viruses identified in the fattening turkey farms confirmed as positive on 22 and 23 August (Verona province) have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

24/08/2017 – On 23 August, the virus detected in the fattening turkey farm in Verona province (confirmed as positive on 21 August) have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

23/08/2017 – On 22 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Verona province, Veneto region. About 10.900 male turkeys (86 day-old) were present in the premise where an increase on mortality rates was observed starting from Sunday 20.
On 23 August another fattening turkey farms in Verona province were confirmed as positive for AI subtype H5. In this premise, about 33.000 birds (75 day-old) were reared, and an increase in mortality was notified in the previous days.
As provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC, restriction zones (protection and surveillance zones) were defined around the infected holdings, and control measures were implemented. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures were concluded in the turkey farms confirmed as positive on 21 and 22 August, while in the game bird farm in Lodi province (confirmed on 21 August) and in the last case (turkey farm) in Verona province, the operations are planned for 24 August.

22/08/2017 – On 21 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus a fattening turkey farm in Verona province, Veneto region (subtype H5), and a game birds farm in Lodi province, Lombardy (subtype H5N8). At the moment of the epidemiological inquiry, in the fattening turkey farm there were 13.248 turkeys (females, 87 day-old). The symptoms started in the days before the confirmation, in particular from Friday there was a sudden increase in the mortality and a decrease in water and feed intake. Culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures are ongoing for this case, while the pre-emptive culling of an at-risk turkey farm, linked to the outbreak, has been planned for the next days. Regarding the last case in Lombardy region, in the farm were present about 23.000 birds belonging to different species (pheasants, partridges, mallard hybrids), and the samples were collected after a clinical suspect. Further information on virus characterization and phylogenetic analysis on the two viruses will be provided as soon as available.

18/08/2017 – Today, culling, cleaning and disinfection procedures have been concluded, for all positive cases of Avian Influenza and all of the at-risk farms subjected to preventive culling. Therefore, currently all outbreaks of Avian Influenza in Italy have been resolved.

11/08/2017 – Today, the Lombardy region Authority reported the conclusion of the culling procedures for the cases of Avian Influenza confirmed on 5 and 9 August. Furthermore, the cleaning and disinfection operations have been completed in the geese farm (confirmed on 5 August), while the operations on the other cases are near completion. The pre-emptive culling of an at-risk turkey farm, located near the last confirmed outbreak, is planned for today.

09/08/2017 – On 9 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 a fattening turkey farm in Mantua province. At the moment of the epidemiological inquiry, there were 6.502 128 day-old turkeys present in the farm. In the days before the confirmation, there was a slight increase in the mortality and a decrease in water and feed intake. The positive farm is located on the limit of the protection zone of the outbreak confirmed on 21 July in a laying hen farm in Mantua province. Further information on virus characterization and phylogenetic analysis will be provided as soon as available.

07/08/2017 – On 5 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 four different farms in Lombardy region.
Three of the new cases are fattening turkey farms in Mantua province with, 1) around 45.000 68 day-old meat turkeys, 2) about 18.000 82 day-old meat turkeys, 3) around 31.700 80 day-old meat turkeys. These three farms are inside the protection zone of an outbreak in a laying hens farm in Mantua province, confirmed on the 21st of July. The birds in the first farm, in contrast to the other two, did not exhibit any symptoms and samples were collected as part of the surveillance activities provided for the protection zone.
The fourth case was identified in a goose farm in Pavia province. At the moment of the epidemiological inquiry, there were 965 geese present at the farm. On 3 August, there was a decrease in the feed and water intake, an increase in mortality, and the birds started to show nervous symptoms. This farm is located about 50 km from the last confirmed case in wild birds (wild mallard ducks) confirmed on 2 August.

04/08/2017 – On 3 August, all three cases of Avian Influenza confirmed on 02 August have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8.

03/08/2017 – On 2 August, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). There were 5.642 male fattening turkeys (47 days-old) present in the farm. On 31 July, there was a decrease in the feed and water intake and, in the following day, a steep increase in mortality was observed. The culling procedures, as well as the cleaning and disinfection operations, were concluded under official supervision on 2 August.
In the same day, the NRL confirmed another positivity to Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 in a fattening turkey farm in Parma province (Emilia Romagna region). The farm had about 26.500 male fattening turkeys (91 days-old). The case was reported to the Authorities after an increase in mortality was observed. This farm was the site of a previous outbreak of Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N8), confirmed on 2 February and resolved on 9 February.
Lastly, on 2 August the NRL confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 samples obtained from a pool of organs sampled from wild ducks found dead near a lake in the province of Pavia (Lombardy region).

July 2017

28/07/2017 – Today, both viruses found in the cases confirmed yesterday, in Verona and Mantua, have been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Avian Influenza viruses subtype H5N8. Furthermore, the NRL characterised the virus identified in Verona (27/07/2017) as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.
As provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC, protection and surveillances zones were defined, and control measures were put into place in every positive case.

27/07/2017 – On 27 July, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, 12.200 turkeys (around 70 days-old) were present. The turkeys started to exhibit nervous symptoms last Sunday (23/07/2017), and the next day a slight increase in mortality was observed.
Still on 27 July, the Regional Laboratory of Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a laying hens farm (about 120.000 birds) located in the province of Mantua (Lombardy region).
Further information on virus characterization and on the cases will be provided as soon as available.
Culling procedures for the positive fattening turkey farm in Verona (confirmed on the 25/07/2017) were concluded today, under the supervision of the Veterinary Services.

26/07/2017 – The virus detected in a fattening turkey farm in Verona province, confirmed yesterday (25/07/2017), has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8.

25/07/2017 – On the evening of 24 July, an increase in mortality was reported in a fattening turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region). On 25 July, the IZS delle Venezie confirmed the case as positive for Avian Influenza virus subtype H5. At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, 17.724 turkeys (112 days-old) were present. Starting on Sunday, a slight increase in mortality was observed in one of the five sheds at the farm. The farm is located in one of the most densely populated poultry areas in Italy.

24/07/2017 – On 21 July, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 the laying hens farm in Mantua province, already notified as suspect the previous day. In the fattening turkey farm confirmed positive on 20 July, and on a fattening turkey farm in Verona province identified as epidemiological contact, culling procedures were concluded under official supervision.

21/07/2017  – On 20 July, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 two farms located in Lombardy region: a rural holding and a fattening turkey industrial farm in Mantua province. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing in both outbreaks. An increase in mortality was reported in the previous days in one of the sheds of the industrial farm where about 18.900 fattening female turkeys (106 day-old) were present. Further information on virus characterization and on the cases will be provided as soon as available.
In the same date, Regional Authority of Lombardy notified a suspect of avian influenza in a laying hens farm (500.000 heads) in Mantua province.
Today, the NRL characterised both the viruses as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

June 2017

14/06/2017 – On 6 June, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed a positivity for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 in a sample obtained from a juvenile grey heron (Ardea cinerea) found dying in a water canal in close proximity to the sheds of the fattening turkey farm in Mantua province, recent H5N8 HPAI outbreak. Further information will be published as soon as available.

May 2017

31/05/2017 – On 30 May 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 samples from a fattening turkey farm located in Mantua province. About 19.000 fattening turkey males (124 day-old) were present at the farm. Analysis for virus characterization are ongoing at the NRL. Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC. Further information on the case will be provided as soon as available.

April 2017

03/05/2017 – The virus detected in a wild swan in Turin province, and confirmed on 29/04/2017, has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

02/05/2017 – On 29 April 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza A virus, subtype H5N8, samples obtained from organs of a wild swan found dead in proximity to a park in Turin province (Piedmont Region). Further information on virus characterization, ongoing at NRL, will be provided as soon as available.

13/04/2017 – On 12 April 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 samples from a fattening turkey farm located in Verona province. About 13.000 fattening turkey males (64 day-old) were present at the farm; symptomatic birds (nervous symptoms, depression) were reported in one of the four sheds. Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC. Culling procedures were concluded on 12 April. Further analysis for virus characterization are ongoing. Regarding the virus detected in the laying hen farm in Bologna province, and confirmed on 8/04/2017, it has been characterised by the NRL as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. Culling procedures on this premise are ongoing.

10/04/2017 – On 8 April 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 an industrial laying hen farm in Bologna province (Emilia-Romagna region). The samples were taken following an increase in mortality in one of the sheds. At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, 130.773 laying hens were present in a total of 5 sheds. Symptomatic birds and increase in mortality rates were reported in two sheds. Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC. Further information on virus characterization and phylogenetic analysis will be provided as soon as available.

04/04/2017 – On 30 March 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 a backyard flock in Turin province (Piedmont region). There were 10 broiler chickens and a goose present in the farm, all of them showed symptoms and died shortly after. Regarding the case in Verona (confirmed on 29/03/2017), the culling procedures were concluded on 31 March. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health has ordered the pre-emptive killing of susceptible birds in two turkey farms located near the outbreak.

March 2017

30/03/2017 – The virus detected in a backyard flock in Pordenone province, and confirmed on 28/03/2017, has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. Culling procedures were finished on 29 March. Furthermore, the case reported yesterday in Verona province was confirmed by the NRL, and the virus characterised has Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N8. Phylogenetic analysis for both virus are ongoing.

29/03/2017 – On 28 March 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5N8 a backyard flock (chickens) in Pordenone province (Friuli Venezia Giulia region). On 29 March, samples from a fattening turkeys farm located in Verona province were analysed at a local laboratory belonging to Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale and resulted positive to Avian Influenza subtype H5. Confirmation analysis on this last case are ongoing at the NRL. An increase in mortality was observed in the previous days. At the moment of the impound, about 16.000 turkeys were present. Further information on virus characterization will be provided as soon as available.

17/03/2017 – On 16 March 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 in a farm in Treviso province (Veneto region). The positivity was found after the farmer reported the death of 5 chickens (Gallus gallus) to the Veterinary Services. Animals are kept in an aviary and, at the moment of the impound, there were about 200 birds of different species. Epidemiological investigations are in progress to identify the possible source of introduction. Culling procedures are scheduled for today.

01/03/2017 – On 28 February 2017, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 two backyard farms, both in Venice province (Veneto region). The first positivity was confirmed in a chicken found dead in a backyard farm that rear 11 birds (7 chickens and 4 ducks). The second positivity was identified in another backyard farm near the first case. At the moment of the impound, 8 hens, 3 ducks, 2 geese, and 4 peacocks were present; two of the chickens showed clinical symptoms and were sent to the NRL for analysis. The culling procedures ended on 28 February in the first outbreak and on 01 February in the second.

February 2017

24/02/2017 – The National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed a new positivity to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 in a common shelduck (Tadorna tadorna). The symptomatic bird was found in a wetland (mouth of the Po river) in Boccasette locality, Rovigo province (Veneto region) and died shortly after. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health ordered the pre-emptive killing of the birds in five holdings located inside the protection zones of the two positives cases in Mantua province, Lombardy region (confirmed on 15/02/2017 and 22/02/2017). Three are broiler farms (with about 93.000, 82.500 and 90.000 animals) and two are turkey farms (with about 9.280 and 12.000 animals).

23/02/2017 – The virus detected in infected farm located in Mantua province, and confirmed on 22/02/2017, has been characterised by the National Reference Laboratory as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. This is the seventh case of HPAI subtype H5N8 in the Italian domestic poultry sector. Phylogenetic analysis are ongoing.

22/02/2017 – On 22 February 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 an industrial meat turkey farm in Mantua province (Lombardy region). This is the second case in this province, in fact the positive farm is located inside the protection zone of the first case (confirmed on 15 February). At the moment of the impound, about 21.820 turkeys were present, some of which presented clinical symptoms. An increase in mortality was observed in the previous days.
Further information on virus characterization and phylogenic analysis will be provided as soon as available.
On the same day, the Ministry of Health ordered the preventive slaughtering of a meat turkey farm with about 8.000 birds. This farm is located inside the protection zone of the Verona outbreak (confirmed on 16/02/2017).

17/02/2017 – On 16 February 2017 a suspect of Avian influenza arose in a industrial meat turkey farm in Verona province (Veneto region) where birds reared in one of the ten sheds showed depression and decrease in water intake. At the moment of epidemiological investigation, 41.373 birds were present at the premise. On 17 February, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed the farm as positive to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8. Phylogenetic analysis are ongoing.
In addition the NRL characterized the virus identified in Mantua province as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

15/02/2017 –  On 15 February 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 an industrial meat turkey farm in Mantua province (Lombardy region) where birds showed flu symptoms in the previous days. In the farm are present about 14.000 birds at the end of the productive cycle. The epidemiological investigation is ongoing, while the culling of the birds under official supervision is expected to start in the next few days. Further information on virus characterization and phylogenic analysis will be provided as soon as available

06/02/2017 – On 3 February 2017, the official authorities concluded the preventive slaughtering of a laying hen farm with 36.737 birds in the province of Rovigo. This farm was identified as a high risk “contact premises” due to epidemiological links with the outbreak detected on 25 January 2017 in the Rovigo province.

03/02/2017 – On 2 February 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 an industrial meat turkey farm in Parma province (Emilia-Romagna region). On 3 February 2017, the NRL characterized the virus as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. This is the fourth outbreak in the domestic poultry sector in Italy in 2017. There were about 22.900 turkeys in the farm and they exhibited clinical signs and increased mortality. Partial analysis of the viral sequence shows that this virus does not cluster with the other viruses found in the Italian poultry sector, which suggests that this outbreak, like the previous ones, are a new introduction of the virus in the domestic sector.
Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC. The culling of the birds under official supervision is expected to start in the next few days.

January 2017

26/01/2017 – On 25 January 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N8 an industrial laying hens farm in Rovigo province (Veneto region). The characterization of the virus is ongoing. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

24/01/2017 – On 23 January 2017, a second outbreak of HPAI subtype H5N8 was confirmed in a fattening turkeys farm located near Venice lagoon in Venice province (Veneto region). At the time of the epidemiological inquiry (24/01/2017), 22.300 male turkeys of 113 days old were present in the farm. The birds showed neurological symptoms and increased mortality in two out of the 6 sheds present. This farm is part of a national poultry Company. Local veterinary services have immediately impounded the farm and control measures were implemented as provided by the current legislation. The culling of the birds present on the premises under official supervision is programmed to start on Thursday afternoon, once the culling procedures are concluded on the first outbreak in the province of Mira.

23/01/2017 – On 21 January 2017, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 samples collected from an industrial fattening turkeys farm in Venice province (Veneto region). On 23 January 2017, the NRL characterized the virus as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. The birds were sampled after the farm veterinarian reported an increase in mortality rates. During epidemiological inquiry, 20.500 male turkeys were present in the farm and in one of the four sheds of the farm there was increased mortality (10%) and symptomatic animals. Further analysis of the virus are ongoing. Protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding were defined, and control measures were implemented as provided by the Council Directive 2005/94/EC. In the National and European epidemiological contest, this H5N8 outbreak is the first detected in Italian domestic industrial sector. In the same date, the NRL confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 samples obtained from organs of a mute swan (Cygnus olor) found dead in proximity to river Natissa in Udine province (Friuli Venezia Giulia Region). Further analysis of the virus are ongoing.

11/01/2017 – On 10 January 2017 a second positivity to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N5 was confirmed in wild birds. The virus was detected in a gadwall (Anas strepera) found dead in the municipality of Grado, in close proximity with wetlands. Further analysis of the virus are ongoing.

5/01/2017 – On 5 January 2017 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed a new positivity to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 in a Eurasian wigeon (Anas Penelope) found dead in Grado lagoon in Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The NRL communicated the results of phylogenetic analysis on the HPAI virus subtype H5N5 identified on 28 December: the virus clusters with H5N8 viruses found in Europe, Russia, Mongolia, India e China during 2016 and shows the higher similarity with two viruses identified in Poland in December 2016.

December 2016

30/12/2016 – On 28 December 2016 the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N5 samples obtained from organs of a wild bird found dead in Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. The positive bird was a Eurasian wigeon (Anas Penelope) collected along with other two ducks of the same species in Grado lagoon, a wetland in Gorizia province. Further analysis of the detected virus are ongoing.

2016 – H7N7

  • Outbreaks | PDF (last update: 10/06/2016)
  • Map | PDF (last update: 14/06/2016)

June 2016

23/06/2016 – On 22 June 2016, a Ministerial Note has been issued in relation to emergency control and eradication measures to contain H7N7 AI virus spread in Italy. The note reports that all the control measures enforced in laying hen and fattening turkey holdings will be lifted from 26 June 2016.

14/06/2016 – On 4 June 2016 the restriction zones of the confirmed case of 30 April in Ferrara province were lifted. Regarding the confirmed case of 16 May in Ferrara Province, the protection zone was lifted in 8 June 2016 and the surveillance zone is planned to be lifted on 17 June 2016.

May 2016

19/05/2016 – On 18 May 2016, the culling and carcass disposal of the birds present in the confirmed case of 16 May was concluded. As decreed before by the Ministry of Health, the preventive slaughter of a “contact” premise within the protection zone of this confirmed case started on the same day.

17/05/2016 – On 16 May 2016, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus subtype H7N7 tracheal swabs sampled from meat turkeys in an industrial holding in Ferrara province (Emilia Romagna region). The holding belongs to a poultry Company. The birds were sampled after the Company veterinarian reported an increase on mortality starting on the 13th of May. There were around 50.000 male turkeys (60 days old) present in the premises. The culling of the birds present on the premises started on 16 May under official supervision. “Contact” premises were identified with the epidemiological enquiry and put under health bond by the Competent Authority, and samples were taken as provided for in the Ministerial provision of 11/05/2016. The new confirmed case is located inside of the protection zone of the HPAI H7N7 case confirmed on 30 April 2016 in an organic free-range layer holding in Ferrara province. The phylogenetic analysis shows a similarity of 98% between the two viruses. On 17 May 2016, the Ministry of Health ordered the preventive slaughter of another premise that was epidemiologically correlated and in the vicinity of the confirmed case.

03/05/2016 – On 30 April 2016, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease (NRL) confirmed as positive to Avian Influenza virus subtype H7 sera sampled from hens from an organic free-range layer holding in Ferrara province (Emilia Romagna region). The samples were first found positive at the regional Laboratory (IZSLER in Forlì). The birds were sampled after an increase in mortality and a drop in egg production in the previous days. On the 2th of May, the NRL identified the virus as an avian influenza virus subtype H7N7. In the same day, the NRL analysed the hemagglutinin cleavage site and confirmed that the virus was a High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus (HPAI). The Competent Authority defined protection and surveillance zones (3 and 10 km) around the infected holding. Control measures and eradication procedures were implemented as provided by the national legislation (Council Directive 2005/94/EC). Between the 1st and the 2nd of May, all the birds present in the holding were culled, and the carcasses were disposed of under official supervision. The phylogenetical analysis and the epidemiological investigation indicated a likely contact with the wild birds. The preliminary phylogenetic analysis also showed there was no correlation between this virus and the LPAI H7N7 isolated from the outbreak of 15 April in Ferrara province. Instead, a correlation was found with African and Asiatic strains isolated from wild birds. The emergency unit held in Bologna (Emilia Romagna region) defined several control measures which will be applied in the densely populated poultry areas (DPPA) within the national territory.

2014/2015 – H5N8, H5N1

  • Map | PDF (last update: 16/12/2014)
  • Restriction zones | PDF (last update: 17/12/2014)

16/12/2014 – On 15 December, the national Reference Centre for avian influenza and Newcastle disease of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie confirmed the presence of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza in a meat-producing turkey farm in the municipality of Porto Viro in the province of Rovigo.
The subtype H5N8 is an avian influenza virus that is highly pathogenic for domestic poultry, as turkeys and chickens. Despite being related, the H5N8 virus has a different combination of genes from the H5N1 virus, enabling it to be distinguished from the latter. Between 2013 and 2014, the H5N8 virus was identified as the cause of infection in domestic and wild birds in several western Asian countries, as South Korea, China and Japan, but no cases had been identified outside of this area until last November. Between November and December 2014, the virus was sporadically detected for the first time in domestic and wild birds in Northern Europe (Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). Its arrival in Europe is thought to be linked to migrations of wild birds. To date, there have been no reports of the H5N8 virus being transmitted to humans.
The Veneto regional government has adopted every measure laid down by current legislation to contain the disease, including the definition of the related restriction zones.

2013 – H7N7

  • Outbreaks | PDF (last update: 22/10/2013)
  • Map | PDF (last update: 22/10/2013)
  • Restriction zones | PDF (last update: 22/10/2013)

Italian Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI)

201820172016201520142013

2018

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2018 | PDF (last update: 29/03/2018)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2018 | PDF (last update: 28/03/2018)

March 2018

28/03/2018 – On 28 March, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 a little mixed-species farm in Milan province (Lombardy region). At the time of confirmation, the farm hosted 1190 mixed- species birds. The farm is located in an area characterised by a low density of poultry farms. Samples were collected on 22 March, as part of the monitoring activities provided for by the national surveillance plan for avian influenza. No evident clinical symptoms were observed in the farm. No poultry farms are present within the implemented 1 km radius restriction zone. Culling procedures have already been concluded. Further information will be provided as soon as possible.

February 2018

12/02/2018 – On 7 February, it was confirmed the extinction of the last outbreak in Ravenna Province. Measures provided by Ordinanza n°12 09/02/18 were applied to the restriction zone implemented within 1 km radius from the outbreak.

09/02/2018 – On 9 February, the virus isolated in the last outbreak was characterised by the NRL as Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N7. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the virus is not closely related with LPAI H5 viruses collected from Italian outbreaks in 2017. The source of introduction is still unknown.

08/02/2018 – On 2 February 2018, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a free-range farm in Ravenna province (Emilia-Romagna region). At the time of confirmation, the farm hosted 400 Muscovy ducks and 5,269 mallards. The farm houses duck breeders and for fattening, which are sold to backyard holdings, dealers and as game birds. Samples were collected on 31 January, as part of the monitoring activities provided for by the national surveillance plan for avian influenza. Culling procedures were concluded on 6 February. The implementation of the restriction zone is ongoing. No poultry farms are present within 1km from the outbreak. The complete characterization of the virus is still pending.

2017

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2017 | PDF (last update: 02/01/2018)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2017 | PDF (last update: 21/12/2017)

December 2017

20/12/2017 – On 15 December, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a game-birds farm  in Mantua province (Lombardy region). The isolated virus does not belong to the H5N8 strain. At the time of confirmation, the game-birds farm hosted 840 ducks, 573 geese and 5,800 pheasants. The positivity was confirmed after the pre-movement virological tests. On 18 December, the virus was characterised by the NRL as Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) virus.
On 19 December, NRL confirmed as positive for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a mixed-species farm in Padua province (Veneto region). About 4,200 broilers, 4,250 guinea fowls, 1,400 ducks, 2,300 laying hens, 2,800 capons and 10 geese were housed in the farm at the time of confirmation. A slaughterhouse is present within the holding. Samples were collected after a mortality increase was observed starting on 15 December evening. The complete characterization of the viruses isolated in the last outbreaks is still pending.

November 2017

27/11/2017 – On 1 November, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 a duck breeder farm in Ravenna province (Emilia-Romagna region). The farm housed about 5,400 birds. No evident clinical symptoms were observed in the farm.
On 3 November, two other farms belonging to the same owner tested positive for H5 AI. These two farms were located in Ravenna province, and hosted ducks and geese.
The viruses isolated in the three farms were subsequently characterised by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease as Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) viruses subtype H5N2. No poultry farms are present within 1km from the outbreaks.
On 15 November, NRL confirmed as positive for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5 another farm in Ravenna province belonging to the same owner.
The complete characterization of the virus is still pending.
Measures provided by Art. 44 of the Council Directive 2005/94/EC were applied to the restriction zone implemented within 1 km radius from the new outbreak.

2016

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2016 | PDF (last update: 09/01/2016)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2016 | PDF (last update: 05/12/2016)

December 2016

07/12/2016 – On 07 December 2016, the National Reference Centre (NRC) has completed the characterization of the virus detected in the last outbreak of 29 November in the province of Mantua. The virus isolated is a LPAI subtype H5N3.

05/12/2016 – On 29 November 2016 a new premise was confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza subtype H5 in the province of Mantua (Lombardy region). About hundred ornamental birds were reared in the farm, both gallinaceans and anatideans, none showed clinical signs of the disease. A restriction zone was implemented within 1 km radius from the infected holding and culling and disposal operations were planned. The complete characterization of the virus is still pending.
In regards of the previous case in Milan province, on 29 November 2016, all the birds present in the holding were culled, and the carcasses were disposed of under official supervision. The Eurasian eagle-owl was not culled but put under strict monitoring.

November 2016

28/11/2016 – On 22 November 2016 the National Reference Centre (NRC) has confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza subtype H5 samples from an industrial farm in the province of Milan where 1800 fattening geese and 700 fattening ducks were reared. Further analysis lead to characterize the virus as a Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H5N1. The premise is a free-range farm and it is in close proximity with several small lakes where waterfowl congregate. All the birds present in the holding were culled and disposed of under official supervision with the exception of a Eurasian eagle-owl reared separately from poultry. This species is included in the CITES list (art. 40 of Council Directive 2005/94/EC) and derogation from culling has been presented to the Ministry of Health.

April 2016

26/04/2016 – On 22 April 2016, the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease completed the characterization of the different viruses detected in the last two outbreaks. In the case of Pordenone province, the virus isolated was a LPAI subtype H5N2. In Ferrara province outbreak, the virus was a LPAI subtype H7N7.

19/04/2016 – On 15 April 2016, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H7, cloacal swabs from ducks sampled in a multispecies ornamental bird holding in Ferrara Province (Emilia Romagna). The birds were sampled during a pre-movement control for a bird exhibition. A restriction zone was implemented within 1 km radius from the infected holding. Movement restrictions were applied within this zone. On 16 April 2016, all the birds present in the holding were culled, and the carcasses were disposed of under official supervision. The complete characterization of the virus is still pending.

12/04/2016 – On 8 April 2016, all the birds in the affected holding were culled, and the carcasses were disposed of under official supervision. Cleaning and disinfection were conducted at the same step. Epidemiological survey did not identify any epidemiological link to other farms.

07/04/2016 – On 6 April 2016, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive to Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H5, faeces samples from a grower farm in Pordenone province (Friuli Venezia Giulia region). Also Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) tests performed on sera samples collected from broilers (Gallus gallus) in the same farm resulted positive to H5 Avian Influenza virus. The Competent Authority has defined a 1 km radius restriction area around the outbreak; no industrial poultry farms are present within the area. An order of confiscation for the affected farm has also been issued.
The complete typization of the virus is still in progress. Further details will be provided as soon as they are available.

2015

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2015 | PDF (last update: 11/04/2016)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2015 | PDF (last update: 24/12/2015)

December 2015

29/12/2015 – The last outbreak of LPAI subtype H5N3 in the province of Pavia involved a game birds holding where ducks (mallards) and pheasants were reared. The samples were collected as part of the monitoring activities provided for by the national surveillance plan for avian influenza. The cloacal swabs from the ducks resulted positive. At the time of the requisition, in the premise there were other domestic birds such as fattening ducks, live decoy ducks, geese, chickens and doves reared not for commercial purpose. Within 1 km radius around the outbreak there are no other poultry farms.

23/12/2015 – On 23 December 2015 the National Reference Centre (NRC) for avian influenza and Newcastle disease confirmed as positive for low pathogenic  avian influenza virus (LPAI), subtype H5N3, samples from a duck farm located in the province of Pavia. The farm has been impounded and measures of stamping out and carcass destruction have been issued. A Restriction Area of 1 km radius has been defined around the outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the virus is not strictly related to the one identified in the previous outbreak occurred in Pavia province. Further information on this new outbreak will be posted as soon as it is available.

17/12/2015 – On 17 December 2015 the National Reference Centre (NRC) has completed the characterization of the virus isolated in the outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in Pavia. The virus results to be a LPAI subtype H5N2.

07/12/2015 – On 5 December 2015, under the control of Local Veterinary Services, the culling operations of all birds present in the poultry grower located in the province of Pavia (8154 birds resulted positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus, subtype H5 on 2 December 2015) were officially concluded.  Also the culling and destruction operations of the 21850 birds present in the fattening turkeys mixed sexes industrial farm in the province of Forlì-Cesena (found positive on 27 November 2015) have been officially ended.

2/12/2015 – The NRC confirmed as positive for low pathogenic influenza virus H5 subtype the samples collected during the national monitoring plan in a poultry grower located in the province of Pavia. The determination of Neuroaminidase is still pending. The local veterinary Authorities implemented the measures provided for by Council Directive 2005/94/EC (restriction zone of 1km radius around the outbreak) and the operations of culling and destruction of all birds (8514, ducks and chickens) are ongoing.

November 2015

10/11/2015 – The National Reference Centre (NRC) for avian influenza and Newcastle disease confirmed as positive for low pathogenic  avian influenza virus (LPAI), subtype H5N2, samples from a ornamental birds holding in the province of Ravenna (15/0005). The samples were collected during the monitoring activities provided for the national surveillance plan. In the premise there were 3443 birds belonging to different species including some indexed in the CITES list. Restrictive measures were applied in the area of 1 km radius from the outbreak as provided for by Council Directive 2005/94/EC and the birds present in the holding were killed and destroyed with the exception of those included in the CITES list (art. 40 of Council Directive 2005/94/EC). These birds were isolated and subjected to further analyses.
As a result of the epidemiological investigation, it was possible to identify epidemiological contacts between the outbreak and another farm of the same productive typology located in the province of Ferrara (exchanges of live birds).

27/11/2015 – Respiratory symptoms reported in a fattening turkeys farm in  the province of Forli-Cesena lead to declare a suspect outbreak of avian influenza. On 30 November 2015, the samples sent to the National Reference Centre were confirmed positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus, subtype H5N2. The premise is a fattening turkeys mixed sexes industrial farm that had loaded the females group at the beginning of November. As provided for by Council Directive 2005/94/EC, a restrictive area of 1 km radius from the outbreak has been declare and the culling operations of all birds (21850 male turkeys) are ongoing.

11/11/2015 – The analyses performed by the National Reference Laboratory on the samples collected from the second farm confirmed a serological positivity for low pathogenic avian influenza virus, subtype H5N2. As for the previous outbreak, the restrictive measures for avian influenza were implemented and all the birds present in the holding were killed and destroyed with the exception of those belonging to the CITES list.

2014

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2014 | PDF (last update: 31/03/2014)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2014 | PDF (last update: 16/09/2014)

2013

  • Outbreaks in Italy 2013 | PDF (last update: 08/01/2014)
  • Maps of the outbreaks in Italy 2013 | PDF (last update: 08/01/2014)

Further information

Go to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) website:

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